By Kenneth F. Kitchell Jr.
The historical Greeks and Romans lived in an international teeming with animals. Animals have been crucial to historical trade, struggle, love, literature and artwork. contained in the urban they have been stumbled on as pets, pests, and parasites. they can be sacred, sacrificed, liminal, staff, or intruders from the wild. past the town domesticated animals have been herded and bred for revenue and wild animals have been searched for excitement and achieve alike. experts like Aristotle, Aelian, Pliny and Seneca studied their anatomy and behaviour. Geographers and tourists defined new lands by way of their animals. Animals are to be obvious on each attainable creative medium, woven into fabric and inlaid into furnishings. they're the topic of proverbs, oaths and goals. Magicians, physicians and fanatics grew to become to animals and their components for his or her crafts. They paraded sooner than kings, inhabited palaces, and entertained the negative within the enviornment. really actually, animals pervaded the traditional international from A-Z.
In entries starting from brief to lengthy, Kenneth Kitchell bargains perception into this normally neglected global, masking consultant and interesting examples of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. usual animals reminiscent of the cow, puppy, fox and donkey are handled in addition to extra unique animals equivalent to the babirussa, pangolin, and dugong. The proof adduced levels from Minoan occasions to the overdue Roman Empire and is taken from archaeology, historical authors, inscriptions, papyri, cash, mosaics and all different creative media. at any time when attainable reasoned identifications are given for historic animal names and the realities at the back of animal lore are introduced forth. Why did the ancients imagine hippopotamuses practiced blood letting on themselves? How do you capture a monkey? Why have been hyenas considered hermaphroditic? used to be there rather a vampire moth? Entries are observed through complete citations to historic authors and an intensive bibliography.
Of use to Classics scholars and students, yet written in a method designed to have interaction someone drawn to Greco-Roman antiquity, Animals within the old global from A to Z finds the level and value of the animal global to the traditional Greeks and Romans. It solutions many questions, asks a number of extra, and seeks to stimulate extra learn during this vital box.
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Additional info for Animals in the Ancient World from A to Z
Aristotle, therefore, describes the Coan variety, tracing the following_ stages of the life of the_bombyx: _ skole x, young larva; kampe , mature larva; bombylis, cocoon; nekydalos, adult moth (Arist. Hist. an. 6–9; cf. ; Beavis 141–45). g. Thorley and Liu). ; Nivaille; Richter, 40). Beavis and D&K display many examples but noteworthy are examples where bees seem to attack humans, such as the dancing man on a black-figure (BF) amphora in the Pergamon Museum (BzAr no. 16901) or in a scene referring to the bees that guarded the birth-cave of Zeus (Kitchell, 1989).
Beavis (47) opts for a color variety of Latrodectus mactans. Ass For the wild ass, see onager; for the domesticated ass see donkey. Asterion Greek: ’Astevrion (asterion). This spider is classified by ancient writers as a type of phalangion. Beavis understandably translates its name as the “starry spider” (47), but Nicander’s description says it has gleaming “rJavbdoi” (rhabdoi, “rods”) on its body (Th. ), a word usually indicating stripes. It may be well to remember that Asterion was also the name of an early king of Crete and that a lost aetiological story might have given rise to the spider’s name.
222 Pliny simply says its blood barely coagulates, which means it is not that of a bull (Kitchell and Parker) but does not help to further identify it. 4) puts them in the area of Syria he may have either wild bison/ oxen or an antelope in mind. Martial (De Spect. 4) notes that a bubalus fought alongside a vison in the games. The context allows of no clear identification, but slightly favors a bigger, stronger animal (perhaps an aurochs). 25) speaks of an Indian species of boubalis which is not really identifiable from context.
Animals in the Ancient World from A to Z by Kenneth F. Kitchell Jr.