By Max Weber
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Extra resources for Ancient Judaism
Conduct conforming to caste standards, carried for the Indian pariah castes the premium of ascent by way of rebirth in a caste-structured world thought to be eternal and unchangeable. The maintenance of the caste status quo involved not only the continued position of the individual within the caste, but also the position of the caste in relation to other castes. This con- :. ' For the Jew the religious promise was the very opposite. The social order of the world was conceived to have been turned into the opposite of that promised for the future, but in the future it was to be over-turned so that Jewry would be once again dominant.
David is unusual to mail; Goliath, by contrast, is a knight in armor). The warriors of the tribe of Benjamin, which was a peasant tribe at the time, are called "swordsmen" in the Book of Judges (20:35). the costs of his knightly equipment, the full warrior had to be economically expendable for military training. In the Occident similar circumstances led to a corresponding differentiation of status groups. In Israel the development was definitely similar after the great Canaanite cities had been integrated into the confederacy.
Chail, fortune, meant also army and military ability. The "great men" of the prophetic age, hence, were those sibs which provided well-trained, fully armored and equipped warriors. Such sibs, therefore, also controlled the policy decisions of the state because they held the courts and administrative offices in their hands. 'ING » 27 « cayed among them. For this best explains the fact that in the synoecism of Ezra so many persons were not listed by lineage, but only by place of birth; the lineage register included only the militarily qualified sibs, in Roman terms the classis.
Ancient Judaism by Max Weber