By Kathleen Kuiper
Domestic to a couple of the main outstanding feats of engineering in addition to awe-inspiring common vistas, historical Egypt used to be a land of significant promise fulfilled. Its pyramids, writing platforms, and paintings all predate the Islamic conquest and are symbols of the civilizations energy. This quantity invitations readers to take pleasure in the splendors of old Egyptian tradition and notice the traditions that experience fired imaginations around the world for generations. a close appendix profiles very important websites all through Egypt, lots of which nonetheless include remnants and artifacts that ably illustrate the import of this striking civilization.
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Extra resources for Ancient Egypt: From Prehistory to the Islamic Conquest (The Britannica Guide to Ancient Civilizations)
In that period the desiccation of northeastern Africa reached a peak, producing conditions similar to those of contemporary times, and a related succession of low inundations may have coincided with the decay of central political authority. These environmental changes are, however, only approximately dated, and their relationship with the collapse cannot be proved. The First Intermediate period After the end of the 8th dynasty, the throne passed to kings from Heracleopolis. These kings made Heracleopolis the capital, although Memphis continued to be important.
The pyramid of Unas, whose approach causeway was richly decorated with historical and religious scenes, is inscribed inside with spells intended to aid the deceased in the hereafter; varying selections of the spells occur in all later Old Kingdom pyramids. ) Many of the spells were old when they were inscribed; their presence documents the increasing use of writing rather than a change in beliefs. The Pyramid Texts show the importance of Osiris, at least for the king’s passage into the next world: it was an undertaking that aroused anxiety and had to be assisted by elaborate rituals and spells.
Nomad on a camel at the pyramids of Giza, near Al-Jīzah, Egypt. © Corbis The designations of the pyramids—Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure—correspond to the names of the kings for whom they were built. The northernmost and oldest pyramid of the group, called the Great Pyramid, was built for Khufu (Greek: Cheops), the second king of the 4th dynasty. It is the largest of the three. Constructed near each pyramid was a mortuary temple, which was linked via a sloping causeway to a valley temple on the edge of the Nile floodplain.
Ancient Egypt: From Prehistory to the Islamic Conquest (The Britannica Guide to Ancient Civilizations) by Kathleen Kuiper