By Stephen Tanner
Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, the area used to be riveted as American army strength contested the mythical warrior tradition of Afghanistan. via spring 2002, the US started to draw down its forces, its project finished: The Afghan Taliban regime has been overthrown and the terrorists it harbored have been at the run. was once America's effortless victory evidence of its army superiority, or have been the Afghans in basic terms eyeing the novices as they've got watched overseas armies in centuries earlier, understanding time is on their side?For over 2,500 years, the forbidding territory of Afghanistan has served as a necessary crossroads--not only for armies yet for clashes among civilizations--the Greeks, Arabs, Mongols, and Tartars, and in additional fresh instances, Britain and Russia. Now the United States needs to face a brand new enemy in this land--a land that for hundreds of years has develop into a graveyard of empires past.This first-ever entire army historical past of Afghanistan illuminates the huge historic context into which American forces were drawn--a cautionary story, probably, in regards to the hazards which could lie forward.
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Extra resources for Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To The Fall Of The Taliban
Nearly blinded by dust and deafened by noise, the Great King in the center of the Persian line must have felt that his battle plan had succeeded, as indeed it had. The Macedonian line had been flanked on both sides and cut through on its left. But suddenly his own guard began to cave in from an unexpected attack. Darius would fight if he could identify an enemy. Instead, he was suddenly surrounded by fallen or fleeing men. And a sudden onset of hoofbeats, clangs of metal, and shouts to his left informed him that Alexander was caving in his guard and heading straight for him.
As a fugitive, Darius headed north where there would be no point for his antagonist to follow when the entire rest of the empire was his for the taking. Alexander moved south to Babylon, the commercial and administrative center of the Persian Empire, and stayed there for over a month. The Macedonian troops must have thought they were in heaven, or possibly in hell. A shocked Curtius wrote, "Women attend dinner parties. " From Babylon the army marched to Susa, which was almost as impressive. The wealth of Mesopotamia exceeded the most fervid dreams of the Macedonian foot soldier, who had been raised on what to Greeks were plentiful conditions but to the Persians were considered Spartan.
In fact, the snow cover is so thick on the ground and so hardened with ice and almost permanent frost that no trace is to be found even of birds or any other animal of the wild. The overcast daylight, which would be more accurately called a shadow of the sky, resembles night and hangs so close to the earth that nearby objects are barely visible. The Macedonians were advancing on the verge of spring—late March or early April—and the route between Kandahar and Kabul is not usually so difficult at that time of year.
Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To The Fall Of The Taliban by Stephen Tanner