Read e-book online A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, PDF

By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard

ISBN-10: 0299048446

ISBN-13: 9780299048440

The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive historical past of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.  

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Export duties paid by the merchants, Sicilian and other, to the Sicilian exchequer would be lost, together with the profitable African market. Roger decided to accept the risk. Early in his reign he seems to have made an alliance with the Hammadids of Bougie in eastern Algeria, the traditional enemies of Ibn-al-Athir, Al-kdmil (Amari, BAS, I), pp. 353-507; Ibn-`Idhari, Kitab al-bayan al-mughrib ft akhbdr mullik al-Andalus 2ua-l-Maghrib [. . Reports of the Kings of Andalusia and North Africa] (Amari, BAS, II), pp.

Van Frankreich (Leipzig, 1892); and Lam ma, Comneni a Staufer, 99-115. Sz Petri Venerabilis epistolarum libri sex, VI, 16 (PL, CLXXXIX), col. 424 Ch. 23 The conquest of Berber North Africa by the Arabs in the seventh century had aroused a desperate resistance, and the spread of Islam, which came to the mass of the rural population in the form of Kharijite sectarianism based on the principle of religious equality, only widened the gap between them and their new rulers, the Sunnite nobility (Fund).

I), pp. 59o-59t. For other sources, see Amari, Storia dei musulmani, III, 384-385, note 5. so Caspar, Roger 11, Regesten, no. 53. , pp. 50-51, 70-78; also Amari, Storia dei musulmani, III, 396-398, and Cohn, Geschichte der . . Flotte, pp. 2,3 if. 22 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II guarantees against Savonese piracy and the promise of one Savonese galley to help police the sea from Savona to Sicily and from "Nubia" (Numidia) to Tripoli S1 Until the peace of Mignano in I 139, when his hold on the Italian mainland was finally made secure, Roger could interfere in Mahdia actively only in i 134-113 5 during a short lull in Europe.

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A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard

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