Download e-book for iPad: A History of Modern Germany: 1800 to the Present by Martin Kitchen

By Martin Kitchen

ISBN-10: 047065581X

ISBN-13: 9780470655818

That includes revised and prolonged assurance, the second one variation of A historical past of contemporary Germany deals an available and engagingly written account of German historical past from 1800 to the current.

  • Provides readers with an extended view of contemporary German background, revealing its continuities and changes
  • Features up-to-date and prolonged assurance of German social switch and modernization, category, faith, and gender
  • Includes extra intensive assurance of the German Democratic Republic
  • Examines Germany's social, political, and fiscal history
  • Covers the unification of Germany, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the 3rd Reich, post-war department, the cave in of Communism, and advancements considering re-unification
  • Addresses local historical past instead of concentrating on the dominant function of Prussia

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Additional info for A History of Modern Germany: 1800 to the Present

Sample text

The enlightened absolutism of the old regime was to be replaced by the enlightened absolutism of the self, which lay at the heart of the liberal humanism of the bourgeois epoch. Obligations were emphasized at the expense of rights. For many this vision of the new man was exciting, but for others it was terrifying. When combined with the economic theories of Adam Smith it was to condemn the old order to extinction. Since the motive force behind the reforms was to free Prussia from the French, the reforms aimed to strengthen patriotic and nationalistic sentiments, thus further subordinating individual liberties to a common cause.

The preparatory school (Elimentarschule) led to the grammar school (Gymnasium). The latter were self-consciously elite institutions that, like the universities, emphasized the humanities, particularly Greek and Latin. All teachers were required to have a university degree. A school-leaving certificate known as the Arbitur, which soon became the prerequisite for entry to university, was introduced in 1812. Teachers in the elementary schools (Volksschule) were also required to have a diploma from a teacher-training college (Normalschule) where they absorbed a modified version of the teachings of the great Swiss educational reformer Pestalozzi.

It also applied to neutral countries, G E R M AN Y U NDER NA P O LEO N 11 thus representing a fateful step towards a total war in which there was no distinction between combatants and non-combatants. The blockade proved hard to enforce. It was tightened in 1807, but it was still far from effective. German smugglers were so successful that the French felt obliged to occupy Holland and the German coast as far as Lübeck in 1810; but British goods still found their way in. The French took draconian measures against those found in possession of such contraband.

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A History of Modern Germany: 1800 to the Present by Martin Kitchen

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