By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
On the flip of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire straddled 3 continents and encompassed outstanding ethnic and cultural variety one of the expected thirty million humans residing inside its borders. It was once maybe the main cosmopolitan kingdom within the world--and very likely the main unstable. a short heritage of the past due Ottoman Empire now offers students and basic readers a concise historical past of the past due empire among 1789 and 1918, turbulent years marked by means of awesome social switch. relocating earlier regular remedies of the topic, M. Skr Hanioglu emphasizes wide old tendencies and techniques greater than unmarried occasions. He examines the imperial fight to centralize amid strong competition from neighborhood rulers, nationalist and different teams, and international powers. He seems to be heavily on the socioeconomic adjustments this fight wrought and addresses the Ottoman reaction to the demanding situations of modernity. Hanioglu exhibits how this historical past isn't just necessary to comprehending sleek Turkey, yet is crucial to the histories of Europe and the realm. He brings Ottoman society marvelously to lifestyles in all its facets--cultural, diplomatic, highbrow, literary, army, and political--and he mines imperial files and different files from the interval to explain it because it really was once, now not because it has been portrayed in postimperial nationalist narratives. a short background of the overdue Ottoman Empire is a must-read for an individual trying to comprehend the legacy left during this empire's ruins--a legacy the area nonetheless grapples with at the present time.
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Additional resources for A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire
In Vidin in 1795, Pazvandoğlu Osman, a former mercenary in the service of the Wallachian prince, took advantage of being the son of a former notable who had been executed by the central administration, and subjected a vast area in present-day Serbia and western Bulgaria by force, dismissing local administrators and installing his own men. Two years later, the central government dispatched an army to put an end to this situation, but Bonaparte’s invasion of Egypt in 1789 compelled it to grant Pazvandoğlu Osman an imperial pardon and appoint him governor of Vidin with the rank of vizier.
Sartorial regulations also stipulated the type of headgear to be worn by a Muslim male, while imperial decrees reserved certain luxury garments, such as sable and lynx furs, to the imperial family, high-ranking bureaucrats, and ulema. The guidelines changed from time to time, as did the level of enforcement. For example, the Ottoman Muslim religious establishment of the empire forbade the ownership of silver and gold objects by Muslim males. Exploiting this prohibition, many sultans issued decrees ordering subjects to hand over to the imperial mint all silver and gold objects other than women’s jewelry.
Indd 11 8/23/2007 8:15:57 PM 12 Chapter One of the Hijāz was essential for the legitimacy of the Ottoman sultans who, unable to trace their lineage back to the Prophet Muhammad, based their claim to the Caliphate on their custodianship of the Two Holy Sanctuaries of Mecca and Medina. The Ottomans administered the Hijāz through the Sharifs of Mecca, and distributed large sums of money and handsome gifts on a regular basis in an effort to gain favor with the local population. But Ottoman rule of the peninsula met a vigorous challenge at the turn of the century.
A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire by M. Şükrü Hanioğlu